在非洲西海岸的跨大西洋和跨撒哈拉奴隶贸易之间的异同

主题:大西洋奴隶贸易奴隶制度非洲 页数:8(2868字) 发布时间:2012年3月11日
非洲奴隶贸易已经影响到了世界的很大一部分。这一现象在许多不同的方式,比如贩卖奴隶,被迫移徙和种族灭绝进行了描述。当人们认为今天的奴役,许多预想的形式,它在美国存在的美国南北战争(1861- 1865年)前:一个种族身份的团体拥有和利用其他。然而,在世界的其他地方,奴隶制已经采取了许多不同的形式。在非洲,许多社会公认的奴隶仅仅作为财产,但也有人认为它们是谁,最终可能被集成到奴隶主家庭的家属。还有一些社会允许的奴隶获得军事或行政权力的位置。大多数情况下,无论是奴隶主和奴隶的非洲黑人,虽然他们经常不同族群。传统上,非洲奴隶被买执行基本或家务劳动,作为妻子或妾,或提高奴隶主的地位。奴役的非洲传统做法,改变了由奴隶贩子的两个非非洲集团在公元7世纪开始在一定程度上:阿拉伯穆斯林和欧洲人。从7日到20世纪,阿拉伯穆斯林袭击和贸易在西部,中部和东部非洲非洲黑奴,发送亚洲每年成千上万的奴隶到北非和零件。 From the 15th to the 19th century, Europeans bought millions of slaves in West, Central, and East Africa and sent them to Europe; the Caribbean; and North, Central, and South America. These two overlapping waves of transcontinental slave trading made the slave trade central to the economies of many African states and threatened many more Africans with enslavement, and can to be known as the Trans-Saharan and Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. The merchants who traded slaves on the coast to European ship captains – for example the Vili traders north of the Congo, the Efik in the Bight of Biafra, and behind them the groups that supplied the slaves, such as the Kingdom of Dahomey, the Aro network, and further south, the Imbangala, all had strict conceptions of what made an individual eligible for enslavement. Among such criteria were constructions of gender, definitions of criminal behaviour, and conventions for dealing with prisoners of war. The make-up of slaves purchased on the Atlantic coast thus reflected who Africans were prepared to sell as much as whom Euro-American plantation owners wanted to buy. But the victims of the slave trade also had a major impact on the trade. Probably about one in ten slaving voyages experienced major rebellions, of which the attempts to control increased the costs of a slave voyage to the point where far fewer slaves entered the traffic than would have been the case without resistance. In addition, vessels from some regions on the coast appear to have been more prone to experience slave uprisings than those from other regions. The rebellion-prone areas were precisely those regions, broadly comprising Upper Guinea - Senegambia, Sierra Leone, and the Windward Coast, which had the least participation in the slave trade as they had a royal ban on the export of Benin slave men. In Africa, as in many places around the world, early slavery likely resulted from war groups taking captives. Such captives were of little use, and often some bother, when kept close to their homes because of the ease of escape. Therefore, they were often sold and transported to more distant places. Warfare was not the only reason for the practice of slavery in Africa, however. In many African societies, slavery represented one of the few methods of producing wealth available to common people. Throughout the African continent there was little recognition of rights to private landholding until colonial officials began imposing European law in the 19th century. Land was typically held communally by villages or large clans and was allotted to families according to their need. The...


参考书目:* Dembar - 格林。2000年“奴隶制在古埃及和美索不达米亚”。奴隶制的历史。圣-VAL。学术图书馆酒吧。
*发哥。1969年“奴隶制和西非历史背景下的奴隶贸易”非洲史,X,3 .Journal。
* http://stmarys.ca/~wmills/course316/7Dahomey.html
*克莱因。H. S. 2010年。“大西洋奴隶贸易”。剑桥大学出版社。纽约。
*迈尔斯。S.&Kopytoff。一,1979年“奴隶制在非洲:历史和人类学的观点”。威斯康星大学出版社。
*罗德尼。W. 1972年“欧洲如何欠发达非洲:引言,奴隶制在上几内亚海岸”。
[2]。发哥。“奴隶制和奴隶贸易在西非的历史背景下”非洲史,X学报,1969年3 395。
[7]。克莱因。“大西洋奴隶贸易”。2010. 126。
[11]。Dembar - 格林。“奴隶制古埃及和美索不达米亚”。2000。
[13]。克莱因。“大西洋奴隶贸易”。2010年9。
继续阅读

请加入StudyModebetway中文官网阅读完整的文档

你可能还会发现这些文件有用

  • 跨大西洋奴隶贸易”征文
  • 跨大西洋奴隶贸易征文
  • 跨大西洋奴隶贸易征文
  • 征文跨大西洋贩卖奴隶
  • 跨大西洋贸易征文
  • 文章关于非洲奴隶贸易:非洲黑奴和跨大西洋三角贸易。
  • 跨撒哈拉贸易征文
  • 跨Altlantic奴隶贸易征文

成为会员Studybetway中文官网Mode

注册 - 免费