有被称为社会学实证和建构主义的两种理论的基本区别。它被认为是确定性。为了理解理论和越轨行为，必须了解确定性。是什么决定？它是信仰，一切都已经确定，并根据发生在每一个思想，行动和感觉，我们必须通过已经发生的事情。未来则是由我们过去的决定。实证起源于孔德。有人认为，替换科学投机哲学的方法。实证论者认为越轨行为是真实的，下三类下降。先说越轨是绝对真实的。 Second, that deviance is observable or like an object and third that deviance is determined by forces. The old school positivism relied on biological reasons or factors. The newer idea or contemporary school looks at society as the cause of deviance. If deviance is the opposite of normalcy then what is normal? According to Emile Durkheim, normal is defined by specific behaviors or characteristics that are present in majority of cases, and exceptions are abnormal (Wikipedia). On the other hand, constructivism looks at finding the source for why we believe the way we believe, and life experiences effect, on those beliefs. They don’t consider the world as being divided into right and wrong, deviant and non-deviant. They believe the issue is not why certain people violate norms but how norms are constructed (including what factors are considered in defining people or labeling them as deviant) and how are sanctions applied--why are some people engaged in certain behaviors (or who possess particular characteristics) condemned and labeled, "deviant." Society has a tendency to label behavior that does not meet their definition of normal therefore...