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文化

通过tigrinha 二〇一二年四月二十〇日 721个字
首先,它是有利可图,试图将文化定义;对于文化研究的研究员它不仅包括传统的高文化(执政的社会群体的文化)和流行文化,但根据威廉斯还每天意义和practices.As在马太福音Arnold's“文化与无政府状态”文化说是”男人的完美后无私的努力”。那是詹姆斯·克利福德在‘收藏艺术和文化’辩护,因为研究对象有所不同,根据该定义研究object.This的价值力量的话语,我们聚集在一起的文化是什么并不总是相同虽这么说,它是众所周知的,我们生活在消费的时候,很自然的艺术是从perspective.Theodor阿多诺捍卫文化正在出售,你会与商品见过。艺术作品的自主性是由文化产业他们成为必然是贸易作为商品淘汰。在马克思主义的观点,他辩护,那些谁控制生产手段,本质上控制文化。阿多诺接近大众文化领域中的一个简单的方法,生产(产业)和接收(消费) - 剥去个性。阿多诺还区分高/低的艺术。他说,高雅艺术已经被“猜测它的功效”。在这个意义上说不减,高文化是严肃的学术研究的艺术价值,而低文化是人民群众的文化。本雅明充分说明了我们的方法定义艺术是思想,而是由理论没有确定他反映了什么是艺术,它正在通过技术手段改变W.本杰明引述保罗·瓦莱里开始他的文章的方式:“我们的美术都由男性的力量,其发展 action upon things was insignificant in comparison with ours” – so it is something questionable. In addition, Valéry states that the idea of Beautiful is constantly changing due to the growth in techniques and their precision. Benjamin corroborates this view by pointing out that techniques of representation detach the reproduced object from the domain of tradition and mass movements are responsible for this, especially the film. Although in his essay he states that "the film operator captures the image at the speed of an actor´s speech", thus showing us things we have never been able to notice before, like a gesture decomposed in several fractions of a second, it also manipulates masses – its ultimate purpose is profit. "The reproduction of works of art and the art of the film have had a huge impact on in its traditional form", as Benjamin puts it. Who hasn´t experienced this first-hand? Calling forward the example of painting, Benjamin points out that without its reproduction it would not be accessible to so many, we will have to dislocate in order to be able to contemplate the original work . But copies diminish the importance of the work of art. For example a symphony was trivialized “from an auditory to the drawing room”. This calls to question the authority of the object. Copies of a work of art made it commodity. Without realizing the painter was selling them to earn a living, although his ulterior motive was the artistic side of it. But it became a commodity nonetheless.According to both texts there is no high culture today and little remains in the sense it was first created. W. Benjamin states that high culture always had a cult component and it was bound by it. Statues were made to be contemplated in temples, mosaics in churches. Works of art like statues and mosaics that cannot be mechanical reproduced thus maintained their authenticity – “they are first and foremost related to cult value". When a work of art is related to exhibition value it loses its aura because by reproducing the uniqueness of every reality we destroy the aura. According to Benjamin high art would be the works of art that have an aura and can maintain their distance. If such a distance is not kept then true authenticity is questioned. An analysis of contemporary life sheds some light in this question. It brings us closer to every manifestation of art. He also states that contemporary literature is being undervalued. There is a thin dividing line between reader and writer. Virtually any reader can become a writer, once again closeness is implied.

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