定性和定量研究方法定性研究方法是一种复杂的有意义的分析方法，其特征是过程和意义，而这些过程和意义不是通过数学测量进行实验检验或测量的(Lincoln, 2003;Sarantakos, 2005)。然而，定量研究依赖并建立在数学程序和方法上，如频率、质量、数量和统计程序。本文将对定性和定量的研究方法进行比较和对比，以突出两者的异同。定性分析是一个寻找社会经验意义的详细、集中和深入的过程(Burton 2007/2010)。定性分析对强调“如何”或“什么意思”的问题进行了强调，并赋予了特定的情况。这是使用民族志风格，第一人称叙述，传记和自传体材料(Sarantakos, 2005)。定性研究具有解释性的方法和主观性。在这种类型的研究中，研究人员经常花费大量时间与被研究对象进行直接的个人接触。这种类型的研究通常被称为解释性研究者; observing and recording amounts of information and understanding the meaning in regards to everyday life (Neuman, 2006). Quantitative research methods involve data that has numerical meaning, a measurement, such as height, weight, blood pressure or a particular score (Howell, 2008). The emphasis in this research method is on measurement and the understanding of the relationship between variables (Lincoln, 2003). Quantitative analysis therefore relies and builds on mathematical procedures, such as frequency, mode, median, amount and statistical procedure. The research is then usually reported in an impersonal, third person style (Sarantakos, 2005). Quantitative, statistical analysis is usually computed using electronic processes such as SPSS (Lincoln, 2003). Quantitative researchers normally base their research on large sample sizes which are to represent a greater population (Burton 2007/2010). This research is usually able to be replicated, this placing a greater amount of reliability on the given results. Evidence is abundant of the similarities and differences in qualitative and quantitative research methods. Both qualitative and quantitative methodologies are able to find empirical details or pass a judgement about social life. In both forms of analysis the researcher examines a body of information to identify multiple processes, cause and effect, properties and patterns in data and reach a conclusion based on the reasoning and complexity in the data (Neuman, 2006). However, qualitative analysis examines the patterns of similarities and difference across the data gathered and pulls conclusions from this; while quantitative analysis examines the differences among the data, with the main goal being to compare one variable with another. In both qualitative and quantitative research methods the researcher strives to avoid error and draw false conclusions. Quantitative research takes more of a deductive and objective approach (Burton 2007/2010), conclusions on the hypothesis are drawn from the results of scientifically controlled testing where as qualitative research involves the researcher making more of a subjective judgement about what the data means. Qualitative research differs from quantitative research in many diverse ways, for instance, quantitative research methodologies are specialised, standard sets of data analysis techniques that do not begin analysis on the data until it has been collected and condensed into numerical form. Quantitative analysis then looks for relationships and patterns in the data....
参考文献:Burton, L.(2010)。心理学论文和研究报告的互动写作方法(第三版)。Milton Queensland: John Wiley。