四种认识方法和不同类型的护理理论Danielle Berg, Hailey Hunter, Anh Nguyen, Michael Seeley & Christopher Wilson Maryville大学
知的卡珀四种方法和护理理论的不同类型，是在护理必须继续学习和应用知识的日常实践。在此过程中，了解如何组织，测试和运用知识的护理是很重要的。芭芭拉·卡珀确定知道在护理所必需的教学和护理学的四种基本模式。卡珀四大知道护理的基本模式被定义为经验，道德，个人和审美（姆卡珀，1978）。需要分析的不同方法找到证据，了解每种模式和发展关于每个模式的知识。实证认识或知识仅仅是护理（猎人，2008年）的科学。在护理文学经验知识起步较晚，自1950年以来已经只存在了。从那时起，一直放在护理经验知识的身体发展的重要性日益增加。随着经验的认识，护理学可分为一般规律和理论（姆卡珀，1978）。于知道标记为“护理学”的格局并不反映相同的特性更先进的科学。 Nursing attempts to assess knowledge, question its validity and take the information and incorporate it into specific situations. This can be expressed in facts, specific concept or theory which can be used to predict specific outcomes. Currently, in the development of nursing science, new concepts and experiences continue to occur in health and illness with regards to human life. These new concepts and experiences in the nursing sciences should be seen as breakthroughs in nursing. Carper expresses the need for nursing to expand empirical knowledge because the nursing discipline has not been able to achieve a scientific model to practice with (Mantzorou & Mastrogiannis, 2011). However, for knowledge to be effective it must incorporate ethics, aesthetics and personal knowing (Mantzorou & Mastrogiannis, 2011). The ethical component of Carper’s way of knowing was thought to be “the moral component of nursing” (Mantzorou & Mastrogiannis, 2011, p.254). This component of knowing draws on the underlying values and beliefs of the nurse. Ethical knowledge can be voiced by language and theory. Ethics is evaluated on fairness, excellence and accountability. It is these values that help the nurse form their core beliefs and eventually develop their own nursing philosophy. Mantzorou and Mastrogiannis (2011) state “for nurses the process of ethical knowing such as advocating for their patients and clarifying the meaning of life and living, can change all the existing values in health care” (p.254).This quote stresses the importance of the ethical component of knowing for nurses and how it can be utilized to advance health care. A nurse knowing his or her own morals goes beyond the ethical code; it includes all actions that are believed to be right and wrong in nursing practice. Carper’s empirical knowing and aesthetic knowing are used as pathways leading to knowledge. Carper’s fundamental component of a personal knowledge in nursing is a continuous process of knowing one’s self. According to Chinn and Kramer (1999), “One can truly know another person through knowing the self.” Through the nurse-patient relationship, as nurses, we give all that we are able to with the relationship and use this to benefit both the nurse and the patient. Thus, both the nurse and the patient are able commit and give to his or her fullest potential. Carper’s fundamental pattern of personal knowing is said to be the fundamental that is the most difficult to teach grasp. The personal knowledge component includes...
参考文献:Carper, B. A.(1978)。护理知识的基本模式。答,1(1),24里面。
Mantzorou, M.， & Mastrogiannis, D. (2011)根据卡珀的认识模式，认识病人对专业实践的价值和意义。健康科学杂志，5(4)，251-261。