古希腊是由小城邦，其中斯巴达和雅典两个。雅典是著名的智慧和学习中心。雅典人有兴趣的艺术，音乐，和知识的追求。斯巴达，在另一方面，是公认的军事实力。斯巴达式的生活被集中在状态，因为他虽死犹服务的状态。虽然斯巴达和雅典的竞争城邦单独不同以及governmentally不同，他们都成功地成为支配着古希腊的权力。雅典成为政治家的统治下，民主公元前594除了消除农奴制，梭伦改变以前的统治者，德拉科的严格的法律，使谋杀死亡的唯一罪行处罚。根据民主，雅典进入了它的黄金时期，成为智慧和学习中心。斯巴达人也进入了他们的黄金时代与他们的军事状态的形成。 This military state was established to control the people they had conquered, the Messenians. Because the Messenians outnumbered their conquerors on a ratio of ten to one, the Spartans turned them into agricultural slaves, or helots. Thus, while Athens was liberating everyone by becoming a democracy, Sparta was enslaving a large amount of people for its own benefit. The forming of Sparta's military state changed the Spartan way of life. At the tender age of seven, all Spartan males entered a military school. During thirteen years of harsh training, the young men learned toughness, discipline, endurance of pain, and survival skills. Finally, at age twenty, men entered the military. At this point, the young Spartan might became a hoi homoioi, or a "Similar,” one of the "warrior elite,” if he was accepted into a certain mess unit. If he did not become a "Similar,” he and all his descendants were doomed to enter one of the lesser castes, either the "Inferiors" or the "Tremblers.” Although...